All college-level students need to use documentation when writing research papers for university classes. Among several styles of documentation, the most common are APA and MLA.
For WRIT 3037 spring 2014 UHCL-Ramsey, you may use either MLA or APA documentation. Your instructor is more familiar with MLA style, which prevails in Literature and Humanities courses, but can make sense of APA style, so use the style that best suits your interests.
This handout briefly describes some basic MLA documentation procedures. It is not inclusive, nor is it intended to replace the MLA handbook.
How to create citations within the text:
If you've used the author's name in your sentence, put only the page numbers in parentheses after the segment you are citing.
If you have not named the author in your sentence, put both the name and page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Quoted material in your text: Enclose quotations of less than four lines in double quotation marks.
Preparing the Works Cited section
"Works Cited" takes the place of the old-fashioned Bibliography. (Bibliography could include sources you read but didn't cite in your essay.)
The Works Cited appears as the last page of a research essay, or immediately following your final paragraph.
Guidelines for writing a Works Cited section:
Examples of how to list selected materials (Works Cited):
Books: Typically include the relevant information in this order:
Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Editor. Edition. City: Publisher, Year. Publication Medium: Print, web, etc. Page numbers.
Book with one author:
Clark, Irene. L. Writing in the Center: Teaching in a Writing Center Setting. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1998. Print.
Moncrieff, A.R. Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece. NY: Gramercy, 1995. Print.
Book with two or three authors:
Broadhead, Glenn J., and Richard C. Freed. The Variables of Composition: Process and Product in a Business Setting. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1986. Print.
Citations of They Say / I Say
Graff, Gerald, & Cathy Birkenstein. They Say / I Say: The Moves that Matter in Academic Writing. 2nd ed. NY: Norton, 2010.
Article in an encyclopedia:
"International Working-class Movement." Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Ed. A.M. Prokhorov. 31 vols. NY: McMillan, 1977. Print.
Article or chapter in a book:
Hartwell, Patrick. "Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar." A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. Ed. Theresa Enos. 2nd ed. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1987. Print. 348-372.
Articles from The Norton Reader
Bronowski, Jacob. "The Nature of Scientific Reasoning.” The Norton Reader. Ed. Linda H. Peterson, John C. Brereton, & Joan E. Hartman. 9th ed. NY: Norton, 1996. Print. 1011-1015.
Periodicals (i.e., journals, magazines, newspapers)
Typically include the relevant/available information in this order:
Author. "Article TItle." Periodical Title Volume Number. Issue Number (Year): pages. (For daily or weekly publications, use exact dates instead of volume/issue/year.)
Journal Article, with continuous pagination:
Elbow, Peter. "Ranking, Evaluating, and Liking: Sorting out Three Forms of Judgment." College English 55 (1993): 187-206. Print.
Journal Article, paginated by issue (i.e., includes both volume and issue numbers):
White, John R. "The Way to Use APA: Insider's Guide." Writing Center Market 12.3 (1999): 21-23. Print.
Himes, Geoffrey. "Back in the Saddle." Rolling Stone 18 Apr. 1996: 34-36. Print.
Tyre, Peg. "The Writing Revolution." The Atlantic October 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the-writing-revolution/309090/
Smith, James. "The APA Recovery Guide." Chronicle of Higher Education 10 Mar. 1999: B2. Print.
Typically include as much of the following information as possible in this order: Author (may be an organization). "Article Title." Title of Website. Names of any editors. Website publisher or n.p. Date of publication, page number or n. pag. Date of access. Add URL if the site will be difficult to find without it.
Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Vescomi, Eds. The William Blake Archive. Lib. of Cong., 28 Sept. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2007.
Landauer, Michelle. "Images of Virtue: Reading, Reformation and the Visualization of Culture in Rousseau's La nouvelle Heloise." Romanticism on the Net 46 (2007): n. pag. Web. 8 Nov. 2007.
Evangelista, Stefano. Rev. of Victorian and Edwardian Responses to the Italian Renaissance, ed. John E. Law and Lene Ostermark-Johansen. Victorian Studies 46.4 (2006): 729-31. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Mar. 2007.
Special citations for our course
(see also above)
(These are somewhat improvised but operate under the documentation principle of providing as much information as possible or helpful. Even if your reader might never have access to the "instructor's responses to your essays," you can make a convincing case that you're not making these up, that they really exist.)
White, Craig. "Check-Sheet for Essay Organization." Instructional Materials for Craig White's Literature Courses. http://coursesite.uhcl.edu/HSH/Whitec/INST/ThesTopSS.htm
(For the example above, you don't really need to write out the web URL address beginning with http. For convenience in our situation only, write something like White Coursesite.)
Instructor's responses to essays:
White, Craig. "Essay 1 Rewrite." Personal note. 17 March 2014.
Most of this information can be located in the following publication:
MLA. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.