lecture notes

 


 

assignments after midterm

 

not much gothic today--in U.S. literature a general division of . . .

 

men writing gothic (located in gothic buildings, gothic forest, or gothic past)

 

women writing domestic or sentimental romances

 

divisions less strict now

 

 

 

 

midterms > midterm samples: instructor

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modernity / Tradition

 

Romanticism & Enlightenment; Literary styles or periods: (Romanticism and Realism)

 

 

after this semester, you'll know Romanticism and when it is, which will give you an anchor for locating other periods.

 

values of Romanticism compared to periods before and after

 

started semester with Realism, contrast Romanticism

 

Realism after Romanticism

 

What's before Romanticism?

 

Enlightenment / Age of Reason

 

Two reasons for knowing this:

 

How Enlightenment enabled Romanticism

 

How Romanticism grew from or expanded world of Enlightenment

 

esp. for women's voices plus or minus values identified with women

 

 

 

Standard value distinction between Enlightenment and Romanticism

 

 

Enlightenment emphasizes reason, logic, science, empirical facts > separation of church and state

 

Romanticism emphasizes imagination, emotion, possibilities > reiintegration of moral values into society

 

 

Gender distinction between Enlightenment and Romanticism

 

 

Enlightenment over-represented by male authors, esp. Founding Fathers (less true in Europe, but still somewhat true)

 

Romanticism continues to be over-represented by male authors, esp. in "classic literature," but women make the biggest reading audience

 

Women writers emerge especially in "popular" or "sentimental" styles of fiction and poetry

 

Women writers sell more books than classic male writers

 

 

 

 

Poe poem

 

doing next to reinforce distinction between Enlightenment science and Romantic expansion or reclamation of values

 

Emerson, selections from Nature (1836

 

19 Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. [cf. 9]

 

25 Kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation.

 

 

 

 

 

T. E. Hulme on Romanticism as spilt religion

 

 

Overall question: How are Romanticism and religion compatible—or not?

+ #3 What values compatible with or contrary to Romanticism may conversion or evangelism emphasize?

 

WWW 2.21 clouds, sky > Him who made it [compatibility of Romanticism & sacred world]

 

WWW 15.47 want to be a Christian but I am not (desire & loss)

 

WWW 15.79 sublime (following closeness to God)

 

 

similarities or compatibilities

 

emotion, feeling over reason, heart over head

 

heroic individualism (> child of destiny, "God has a plan for you")

 

romance narrative as story of conflict, salvation, transcendence (heaven as happily ever after)

 

romance narrative as desire and loss (+ recovery?)

 

gothic light/dark as religious color code

 

evangelical literature personalizes divinity: Jesus as brother, God as parent

 

childhood innocence & purity < Christian message of "Let the little children come to me," & "You must become as a child"

 

differences or incompatibilities

 

spirit & nature

  • Romanticism finds spirit or divinity in nature or Creation.

  • Judeo-Christianity separates God from nature (which is fallen or sinful)--yet some pro-nature attitudes remain.

  •  

 

If you've read John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678), how does Wide, Wide World resemble it—especially as a romance?

Conversion not one-time event: struggle continues

Contrast Amazing Grace

 

 

Evaluate the evangelical content of both texts. How to teach such texts in a public university? What pro's & cons to treating as literature or history? (e.g., The Second Great Awakening) What values contrary to Romanticism may conversion emphasize?

 

Heaven v. nature

Fallen world > world of spirit

 

 

 

human nature = good or bad?

  • Romanticism assumes human nature is inherently good but corrupted by civilization; therefore children are innocent and wise compared to adults > sentimentalization of childhood

  •  

  •  Judeo-Christianity assumes human nature is inherently sinful but can be redeemed by instruction, conversion, etc.; children are not innocent, only wayward and ignorant

 

 

Somewhere in between:

Byronic hero (Magua, Poe narrators) as satanic but attractive

"Golden Boy" (Uncas)

> "Fair Lady and Dark Lady" (Rowena & Ligeia in Ligeia; Alice & Cora in Mohicans)

 

Fair Lady and Golden Boy as obedient, devout, pure, untouched or unscarred by experience

Byronic hero and dark lady as rebellious, scarred or tainted by past or experience

 

Religion fades into background of modern life and literature, but morality and moral symbols remain.

 

 

Presentation on pop / classic literature;

Entertain / Instruct
exercise emotions in orderly way
popular literature mostly reinforces where we already are

sentiment / sentimentality


 

 

Sentiment & sentimentality: what reactions to scenes of tears? everyday life?

power of lost parent, different from Oedipal-male pattern

relational psychology of women, based on mother-daughter connection?

 

LL 1.2 city of strangers; motherless child

LL 1.26 lamplighter likes kittens

 

WWW 2.5 deformed child, lost mother [realism]

WWW 2.6 the long close embrace was too close and too long: it told of sorrow as well as love; and tears fell from the eyes of each that the other did not see. [complexity]

WWW 6.32 uncontrollable weeping

WWW 6.40 Ellen's off–that's one good thing [realism?]

 

Domestic literature

 

 

Romanticism

LL 1.28 Her little, fierce, untamed, impetuous nature had hitherto expressed itself only in angry passion, sullen obstinacy, and hatred. But there were in her soul fountains of warm affection, a depth of tenderness never yet called out, and a warmth and devotion of nature that wanted only an object upon which to expend themselves.

LL 2.52 Tears are in TF’s eyes

WWW 5.110 romantic themes of chivalry and honor

 

WWW 10.23 nature looks friendly (correspondence)

WWW 10.28 rough silverware

WWW 10.35 plunged into the mire [realism]

WWW 10.72 I wish there was somebody here that I could love, but there is not. (desire & loss)

 

WWW 11.79-81 Fortune strange to live alone, without help [reality effect]

WWW 11.116-7 pleasant to live in the country > hateful   [romanticism and realism]

 

WWW 15.18 passions always extreme

WWW 15.47 want to be a Christian but I am not (desire & loss)

WWW 15.79 sublime (following closeness to God)

 

 

Realism

LL 1.11 class difference indicated by language

WWW 5.87 deceptive clerk [realism]

LL 2.10 organ-grinder (city detail) 

LL 2.49 True from country, moves to city

WWW 1.1, 1.13 lawsuit

WWW 2.53, 2.56 etc—aunt in small country town [extended family]

WWW 10.97 has to make her own bed

 

 

Romance

WWW 5.18 skill and experience necessary for a shopper

WWW 5.29 romance quest

 

WWW 39.93 Pilgrim’s Progress (cf. romance narrative)

WWW 42.1 Pilgrim’s Progress

Gothic

LL 1.1

LL 1.13 star (cf. Legend & white church)

LL 1.14 dark and light [color code]

 

 

 

Lamplighter notes

LL 1.1 Gothic?

LL 1.2 city of strangers; motherless child Sentiment & sentimentality

LL 1.2 romantic rhetoric of extremes

LL 1.11 class difference indicated by language

LL 1.13 star as transcendent symbol—Romantic as out there and in here (correspondence)

LL 1.14 dark and light [color code]

LL 1.18 league of children against her

LL Mother tried to keep her away from rude herd (class differences)

LL 1.26 lamplighter likes kittens Sentiment & sentimentality

LL 1.28 Her little, fierce, untamed, impetuous nature had hitherto expressed itself only in angry passion, sullen obstinacy, and hatred. But there were in her soul fountains of warm affection, a depth of tenderness never yet called out, and a warmth and devotion of nature that wanted only an object upon which to expend themselves.

LL 2.10 organ-grinder (city detail)

LL 2.11 death of kitten

LL 2.49 True from country, moves to city

LL 2.52 Tears are in TF’s eyes  Sentiment & sentimentality

 

 

 

Wide Wide World

(chapters 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 15)

Mixing of religion with class, manners, courtship, nature

 

WWW 1.7 the lamplighter

WWW 1.1, 1.13 lawsuit

WWW 1.16 earthly father, heavenly Father

WWW .27 leave me, Mother? [cf. Poe, loss of loving feminine other] (desire & loss)

 

WWW 2.3 realism ugly city prospect of back walls of houses, with the yards belonging to them, and a bit of narrow street.

WWW 2.4 compassionate nature

WWW 2.5 deformed child, lost mother [realismSentiment & sentimentality

WWW 2.6 the long close embrace was too close and too long: it told of sorrow as well as love; and tears fell from the eyes of each that the other did not see. [complexity] Sentiment & sentimentality

WWW 2.21 clouds, sky > Him who made it [compatibility of Romanticism & sacred world]

WWW 2.42 Dr. Green: wine or novel 52.106

WWW 2.53, 2.56 etc—aunt in small country town [extended family]

WWW 2.81 country beautiful and healthy

WWW 2.90 correspondence?

WWW 2.94 Captain away

 

 

WWW 5.18 skill and experience necessary for a shopper

WWW 5.29 romance quest

WWW 5.31 [city of strangers]

WWW 5.43 bold, ill-bred

WWW 5.75 gentleman > tears  Sentiment & sentimentality

WWW 5.76 are these your manners?

WWW 5.87 deceptive clerk [realism]

WWW 5.99 revenge

WWW 5.110 romantic themes of chivalry and honor

WWW 5.133 black man with a brace of woodcocks [servant?]

WWW 5.139 Sam [another black servant?]

WWW 5.151 dishonorable?

 

WWW 6.3 Captain unconscious, incapable of sympathizing

WWW 6.24-5 Mother sympathizes, Ellen x-father

WWW 6.32 uncontrollable weeping

WWW 6.40 Ellen's off–that's one good thing [realism?]

 

WWW 10.4 how to wash?

WWW 10.5 too busy

WWW 10.18 back to her work

WWW 10.23 nature looks friendly

WWW 10.28 rough silverware

WWW 10.35 plunged into the mire [realism]

WWW 10.39 staring up at the moon and stars [romanticism]

WWW 10.56 mocking reprimands

WWW 10.67 correspondence?

WWW 10.72 I wish there was somebody here that I could love, but there is not. (desire & loss)

WWW 10.88 You wash! I didn’t think of you doing it!

WWW 10.97 has to make her own bed

 

WWW 11.2 Nancy

WWW 11.8 searching stare

WWW 11.14 lives up on the mountain yonder

WWW 11.22 Van Brunt sympathizes with oxen

WWW 11.36 give me a kiss

WWW 11.45 laugh, look, tone stung > prayed

WWW 11.46 resentment not all gone

WWW 11.79-81 Fortune strange to live alone, without help [reality effect]

WWW 11.86 Aunt Fortune’s oxen

WWW 11.92-4 open woodland, beautiful, what?

WWW 11.116-7 pleasant to live in the country > hateful   [romanticism and realism]

 

 

 

WWW 12.23 Miss Alice

WWW 12.35 kittens

 

 

 

WWW 15.15 lover of nature

WWW 15.17 her own heart sadly out of tune

WWW 15.18 passions always extreme

WWW 15.22 water to her eyes again

WWW 15.36 Alice replaces Mother w/ advice re heaven

WWW 15.44 meant to be good

WWW 15.47 want to be a Christian but I am not (desire & loss)

WWW 5.63 pray together now?

WWW 15.79 sublime (following closeness to God)

WWW 15.82 my father preaches there

WWW 15.98 all things mend with your own mending

WWW 15.117 well-bred

 

 

 

WWW 16.1 correspondence

WWW 16.5 not forgiven aunt fortune

WWW 16.65 conscience

WWW 16.76 root of evil in her own heart

WWW 16.77 romanticized domestic scene

WWW 16.85 a view

WWW 16.88 picturesque?

WWW 16.91 Alice as lady of cultivated leisure

WWW 16.95 brick walls and paving stones

WWW 16.103 décor

WWW 16.128 hatred of Fortune

WWW 16.138 acknowledge yourself at fault

WWW 16.153 some pride there yet

WWW 16.162 pleasant, neat kitchen

WWW 16.168 think cakes were made without hands?

WWW 16.171 Mamma never kept house

WWW 16.185 my brother Jack

 

 

WWW 17.17 literacy and grammar as class markers

WWW 17.37 (wide wide world—geography)

WWW 17.66 English born

WWW 17.87 say what you mean exactly

WWW 17.117 Fortune display of energy no call for

WWW 17.124 Fortune’s grievance

WWW 17.174 strong passion, strong pride

 

 

WWW 39.15 literary talk

WWW 39.26 correspondence b/w scripture and heart

WWW 39.73 a long ladder of knowledge

WWW 39.76 delight + improvement (John)

WWW 39.93 Pilgrim’s Progress (cf. romance narrative)

 

 

WWW 42.1 Pilgrim’s Progress

 

 

WWW 52.23 Byronic?

WWW 52.36 Ellen’s maturity

WWW 52.39 wept

WWW 52.76 grown, not the child

WWW 52.96 correspondence

WWW 52.106 read no novels [cf. Dr. Green in ch 1]

WWW 52.116-118 Van Brunt a Christian

WWW 52.149 manners

WWW 52.161 good came out of evil

WWW 52.169 organic metaphor

 

 

 

evangelical literature

challenge: characters must be redeemed > problem of villains (e.g., Nancy Vawse)

(Stowe solves it by showing Simon Legree and other villains in grips of slavery's lust for economic and sexual power)

 

challenge: church choirs and evangelical TV/radio "let anybody sing" (talented or not) b/c "the message is good"

How to distinguish quality when the message concerns God's unlimited love and inclusion?

Implicit: secular society is meritocratic--based on merit or "what you bring to the table"