LITR 4368 Literature of the Future
lecture notes

narrative: evolution "Somebody up there Likes Me" (VN 208-237); begin The Time Machine

pre-midterm

thanks for cooperating, communicating, working together in good faith and trust

interesting group of students, more diverse than average LITR course, cf. Futures students,

+ taps into what students are reading anyway, not just what teachers think they should be reading

> learn from you as you learn from me, try to coordinate what you bring with what the course offers

 

nearly finished reading

By end of week, each of you will receive an individual email with response to pre-midterm and grade report attachment

Most of you did all right, but several of you didn't do enough or give me enough to work with

 

How to respond:

1. My notes will tell you what you need to add, revise, etc. to your draft in addition to extending for the midterm--that is, you'll revise and improve what you've already written, then write some more

2. Changes to midterm to help everyone get more up to speed.

 

 

pre-midterm > midterm > final organization (happens also in LITR 4370 Tragedy)

draft, revise, and extend essays across 2 or 3 exams

purposes:

students get feedback, practice at improving writing (contrast usual feedback: "you should have done this")

students get practice at test-taking (education systems increasingly geared toward testing, accountability, "teaching to the test")

> By extension, learn how to write tests, grade tests, especially those that involve writing, our special domain (critical thinking)

 

How to improve outcomes on midterm:

1. Read my notes, start revising or re-working Essay 1 as necessary:

 

required texts,

 

use of definitions on websites

coverage or analysis,

not scorching you on this; submissions comparable to other classes in same situation; but not same situation--only a month since hurricane

 

2. If your research proposal was too broad or had other problems, communicate with me--email or best to talk

 

3. changes to midterm to raise your standards

attention to previous student samples--partly accomplished with requirement in Essay 1 to refer to previous midterm--but maybe one such retrieval isn't enough to give you sense of expectations

midterm

Science fiction

 

literature of ideas

 

What immediate associations or identifications of sff?

 

science--change beyond normal reality: gizmos, environment (Hwy 101), social landscape, aliens, mutations

 

adventure > romance narrative

 

 

hard and soft sf

 

Wells's Law

 

metaphor / analogy

1. Science fiction has built-in problems as classic literature, but H.G. Wells maintains status and influence as the greatest "classic" science fiction writer. What qualities distinguish his style? What models does he create for science fiction in terms of style, action, and characterization? What mix of science and fiction?

2. The Time Machine was written 1895, a generation after Darwin's Origin of Species (1859): What signs, terms, or symbols of evolution in Time Machine? Is its plot evolutionary or apocalyptic?

3. Evolution as progress or decline? How does changing the time scale (from near to distant future) change the perception?

4. Identify "Social Darwinism" (e.g., "survival of the fittest") with cultural, class, or biological developments in The Time Machine.

5. "Somebody up there . . . ": How is Wells's industrial-era evolution updated to digital-era technology? What styles or symbols are updated in terms of gender, action, humor?
 How are both evolution and creation-apocalypse present in the same text?

5a. "Somebody" (cont'd): Published in 1994, this might be Literature of the Future's most current, hippest test. What feels current or futuristic about its language or scenario?

 

 

 

1. H.G. Wells is the greatest historic science fiction writer. What qualities distinguish his style? What models does he create for science fiction in terms of style, action, and characterization? What mix of science and fiction? (Emphasis on objective 3a: Metaphor / analogy)

 

1.18, 1.28 analogy to make unknown known + 1.71

[1.47] “Experimental verification!” cried I. “You are going to verify that?”

[2.4] "Where's—?" said I, naming our host. ["host" = Time Traveller, unaccountably absent; servants would have received the visitors to his house]

[2.18] "Story be damned!" said the Time Traveller. "I want something to eat. I won't say a word until I get some peptone [peptides, amino acids] into my arteries. Thanks. And the salt." [sf, but then familiar]

2.26 I want to tell it. Badly. Most of it will sound like lying. So be it! It's true—every word of it, all the same. [quickness, intensity, efficiency] [cf. "protein boost," "lactic acid"]

2.29 [nice cinematic / dramatic setting of story-telling]

3.11 sphinx (symbol) also 4.7, 5.2, 5.5,

3.3 she seemed to shoot across the room like a rocket

3.4 night followed day like the flapping of a black wing.

3.6 I flung myself into futurity

3.11 in shape something like a winged sphinx, but the wings, instead of being carried vertically at the sides, were spread so that it seemed to hover

4.28 complexity

5.3 The Time Machine was gone!

5.13 a sound like a chuckle [shapes nature of future]

5.15 figurative language

5.17 an obvious conclusion, but it was absolutely wrong.

5.20 I could not see how things were kept going.

5.23 my little woman

5.27 a solitary white, ape-like creature

5.35 my mind was already in revolution; my guesses and impressions were slipping and sliding to a new adjustment.

 

limits of science fiction

5.18 Then, think how narrow the gap between a negro and a white man of our own times, and how wide the interval between myself and these of the Golden Age!

 



2. The Time Machine was written 1895, a generation after Darwin's Origin of Species (1859): What signs or terms of evolution in Time Machine
?

3.12 What if in this interval the race had lost its manliness and had developed into something inhuman, unsympathetic, and overwhelmingly powerful? I might seem some old-world savage animal, only the more dreadful and disgusting for our common likeness—a foul creature to be incontinently slain.

3.15 how warm the air was.

4.7 a chain of beautiful flowers altogether new to me

4.13 horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, had followed the Ichthyosaurus into extinction.

4.20 in all the differences of texture and bearing that now mark off the sexes from each other, these people of the future were alike.

4.26 selective breeding

5.9 I felt hopelessly cut off from my own kind—a strange animal in an unknown world.

5.11  find its hiding-place, and recover it by force or cunning.

5.18 Then, think how narrow the gap between a negro and a white man of our own times, and how wide the interval between myself and these of the Golden Age!

5.29 people, unfamiliar with such speculations as those of the younger Darwin*, forget that the planets must ultimately fall back one by one into the parent body.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Evolution as progress instead of decline? How does changing the time scale (from near to distant future) change the perception?

[1.44] “To discover a society,” said I, “erected on a strictly communistic basis.”

[3.7] "What strange developments of humanity, what wonderful advances upon our rudimentary civilization, I thought, might not appear when I came to look nearly into the dim elusive world that raced and fluctuated before my eyes! I saw great and splendid architecture rising about me, more massive than any buildings of our own time, and yet, as it seemed, built of glimmer and mist. I saw a richer green flow up the hillside, and remain there, without any wintry intermission. Even through the veil of my confusion the earth seemed very fair. And so my mind came round to the business of stopping,

3.16 a very beautiful and graceful creature, but indescribably frail

4.4 a certain lack of the interest I might have expected in them.

4.6 were these creatures fools? You may hardly understand how it took me. You see I had always anticipated that the people of the year Eight Hundred and Two Thousand odd would be incredibly in front of us in knowledge, art, everything. Then one of them suddenly asked me a question that showed him to be on the intellectual level of one of our five-year-old children

4.10 so much worn, as I judged by the going to and fro of past generations, as to be deeply channeled along the more frequented ways.

4.14 I never met people more indolent or more easily fatigued.

4.16 Eight Hundred and Two Thousand Seven Hundred and One A.D. For that, I should explain, was the date the little dials of my machine recorded.

4.17 ruinous splendor

4.18 palace-like buildings, but the house and the cottage, which form such characteristic features of our own English landscape, had disappeared.

[4.19] "Communism," said I to myself.

4.23 no hedges, no signs of proprietary rights, no evidences of agriculture; the whole earth had become a garden.

4.25 humanity upon the wane

4.25 odd consequence of the social effort in which we are at present engaged. And yet, come to think, it is a logical consequence enough. Strength is the outcome of need; security sets a premium on feebleness. The work of ameliorating the conditions of life—the true civilizing process that makes life more and more secure—had gone steadily on to a climax. One triumph of a united humanity over Nature had followed another. Things that are now mere dreams had become projects deliberately put in hand and carried forward. And the harvest was what I saw!

4.27 The ideal of preventive medicine was attained. Diseases had been stamped out.

4.28 no signs of struggle, neither social nor economical struggle. The shop, the advertisement, traffic, all that commerce which constitutes the body of our world, was gone. It was natural on that golden evening that I should jump at the idea of a social paradise. The difficulty of increasing population had been met, I guessed, and population had ceased to increase.

4.31 [4.31] "Under the new conditions of perfect comfort and security, that restless energy, that with us is strength, would become weakness.

4.33 Very simple was my explanation, and plausible enough—as most wrong theories are! 

5.18 visions of Utopias and coming times which I have read

[5.40] "The great triumph of Humanity I had dreamed of took a different shape in my mind.

5.40 the balanced civilization that was at last attained must have long since passed its zenith, and was now far fallen into decay

 

 

4. Identify "Social Darwinism" (e.g., "survival of the fittest") with the cultural or class developments in The Time Machine.

5.33 Man had not remained one species, but had differentiated into two distinct animals: that my graceful children of the Upperworld were not the sole descendants of our generation, but that this bleached, obscene, nocturnal Thing, which had flashed before me, was also heir to all the ages.

5.36 this second species of Man was subterranean

5.37 the how of this splitting of the human species

5.38 the gradual widening of the present merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and the Laborer

5.39 above ground you must have the Haves, pursuing pleasure and comfort and beauty, and below ground the Have-nots, the Workers getting continually adapted to the conditions of their labor

 

 

 



5. "Somebody up there . . . ": How is Wells's industrial-era evolution updated to digital-era technology? What styles or symbols are updated in terms of gender, action, humor?
   

 

species: cf. Time Machine, Bears discover Fire

 

Evolutionary nature > culture

208 sockeye salmon extinct

214 hawk taking a field mouse on a commuter hop to God

215 your students were always nineteen while you withered into your grave before their eyes. My problem was different—I remained the same while they mutated into a different species.

 

216 “To a new life for us all.”

“What do you want a new life for?”

“I meant the new one we’re all getting, want it or not.”

 

218 Humanity’s signal-to-noise ratio isn’t so hot . . . Worst in the animal kingdom

 

Evolution / business as sex / death

211 a few small, sexy triumphs that kept the investors turned on

213 Never mind free enterprise, Dante, women are the great challenge

223 Fear of death . . . sexual terror

224 Brubaker was an avatar of free enterprise who’d been in bed at one time or another with almost every breathing being doing business in the valley. [mix of high-tech, sex, & business]

225 The automobile was so large it seemed designed to lure Japan into the quicksand with us once and for all—the two rivals going down in a cruise-controlled death embrace.

234 He’s a total loss, isn’t he? But he likes computers, right? Computers make him happy, it seems like.

 

Economic life as struggle for survival, cycle of extinctions

213 Slithering beast of commerce, it’s a snakepit out there.

210 “your position here” . . . out to get me

210 a section of Mastering Capitalistic Prose

211 since my fellow PhD’s seemed ready to slit my throat for the job, I took it

216 corporate downsizing

217 working, though he didn’t know it, for his own extinction

224 seen the high times, researching the lows

226 Nothing could kill the entrepreneurial spirit, not even the nineties in California. . . . It was endless, and now Boyce was one of them.

228 He had just completed a kill and he wouldn’t want to fight. He’d feel unthreatened and kingly . . . He might even let smaller creatures pick at the edge of his prey

229 These words revived his inner animal

229 I developed the protocol! Me! He slapped himself on the chest

229 We were all right. He was verbalizing.

229 a bearlike creature [[metaphor, analogy]]

 

 

 

Industrial products as generations, extinct species

219 Once, people had thrilled to own this little appliance of the brain.

222 our relentless fascination with technological goods, the way machines work, what’s the latest thing . . . Something about it is fishy

228 Mutilated corpses of computers from the past ten years lay in heaps around the cylindrical room

 

Future in or out of education?

215 I should enter the private sector, like Boyce, where your bosses didn’t punish you for doing your job

220 My professors aren’t bad people, they just turn their students into apes. No, . . . this system does it! This rotten system.

227 I thought of my students, aliens whose human parents paid my bills, and I understood them better now

 

Sticky conclusion

evolution tied up with capitalism, freemarket economics, technological change

As genetics, evolution automatically involves sex

A key ingredient of evolutionary progress is death

 

"Somebody up there Likes Me" (VN 208-237)

208 Network fortune cookie + email from distant wife

208 sockeye salmon extinct

208 school, surrounded by cinder-block walls and shelves stuffed chaotically with tapes and disks [i. e., not books]

209 random-sentence generator

209 when a woman moves 1500 miles from her mate to get a PhD in women’s studies, it’s the beginning of the end . . . refuting those prophets of woe is not easy

210 “your position here” . . . out to get me

210 San Jose College of the Mind

210 a section of Mastering Capitalistic Prose

210 met at poetry slam in 1995

210 verses of outrage and indignation . ..  waving Simone Weil

210 my sheaf of technological rhapsodies

211 since my fellow PhD’s seemed ready to slit my throat for the job, I took it

211 company trying to simulate human consciousness with a computer

a few small, sexy triumphs that kept the investors turned on

now recognized specific people

211 certain faculty couples masquerading as our friends were doing us dirty behind the scenes

211 in the disappointing run of men I’m a prize

212 night-shift checkout girl at a discount drug superstore . . . her rebirth . . . sisterhood

212 our separation day

212 our parting scene was playing like dinner theater

213 the dusty laptop, shades of Orville Wright

213 our thrilling but turbulent present-day network

213 Slithering beast of commerce, it’s a snakepit out there.

213 Never mind free enterprise, Dante, women are the great challenge

214 drought, emblem of our republic

214 hawk taking a field mouse on a commuter hop to God

215 your students were always nineteen while you withered into your grave before their eyes. My problem was different—I remained the same while they mutated into a different species.

Implanted watches

Personalized drugs from own DNA

215 I should enter the private sector, like Boyce, where your bosses didn’t punish you for doing your job  [privatization in Parable of the Sower]

216 “To a new life for us all.”

“What do you want a new life for?”

“I meant the new one we’re all getting, want it or not.”  [irony, fatalism, decline]

216 a triple-depth lot

216 Garden of Eden

216 corporate downsizing

217 working, though he didn’t know it, for his own extinction

217 see the computer hold a credible conversation . . . with its lips

218 she thinks I was going corporate

218 Humanity’s signal-to-noise ratio isn’t so hot . . . Worst in the animal kingdom [see definition below]

218 what I want to build now. The computerized mind of the world.

219 recently restuccoed walls were already cracked again from tremors

219 Once, people had thrilled to own this little appliance of the brain.

220 My professors aren’t bad people, they just turn their students into apes. No, . . . this system does it! This rotten system.

221 I, for one, am getting out

221 Janet famously loathed all technology after the fountain pen

222 In Boyce’s ziti the asparagus had given itself to the pasta like a submissive lover.

222 our relentless fascination with technological goods, the way machines work, what’s the latest thing . . . Something about it is fishy

223 Fear of death . . . sexual terror

223 A Revelation 2000

This magical product name buzzed past my ear with such an unreal twang

Halographic screen, sexiest hardware

224 Brubaker was an avatar of free enterprise who’d been in bed at one time or another with almost every breathing being doing business in the valley.

224 seen the high times, researching the lows

224 teaching street youths to set up their own “S” corporations [subchapter S of chapter 1 of Internal Revenue Code]

224 Are you going to use it to change the world?

225 The automobile was so large it seemed designed to lure Japan into the quicksand with us once and for all—the two rivals going down in a cruise-controlled death embrace.

225 Mickey is not a vet. Not of any actual war.

226 Wrote system code in the glory days . . . into hardware now

226 Offices and malls and taco stands

226 Nothing could kill the entrepreneurial spirit, not even the nineties in California. . . . It was endless, and now Boyce was one of them.

226 expensive designer things with all kinds of shapes and flaps cut into them

226 rags, actual rags

227 a small Filipino woman

227 furniture and clothing and plastic media trash tumbled together indistinguishably in every room

227 I thought of my students, aliens whose human parents paid my bills, and I understood them better now

227 two handguns and a rifle—not toys, not dusty

228 Mutilated corpses of computers from the past ten years lay in heaps around the cylindrical room [metaphor, analogy]

228 a high-pitched squeal was emerging from the thing

228 an abuse tester . . .  stresses

228 He had just completed a kill and he wouldn’t want to fight. He’d feel unthreatened and kingly . . . He might even let smaller creatures pick at the edge of his prey [metaphor, analogy]

228 drop it on the floor

229 These words revived his inner animal

229 I developed the protocol! Me! He slapped himself on the chest

229 We were all right. He was verbalizing.

229 a bearlike creature [metaphor, analogy]

229 TV new story about thousands of people living at Moffett Air Field now that NASA’s demise had left the old base free to become a homeless shelter. It was an election year

231 reality and the Revelation were basically indistinguishable. Everything just was, and in 3-D it all seemed almost edible besides. It was an amazing hardware experience.

234 He’s a total loss, isn’t he? But he likes computers, right? Computers make him happy, it seems like.

Golden future of hope and love

signal to noise ratio

the ratio of the strength of an electrical or other signal carrying information to that of interference, generally expressed in decibels.
  • informal
    a measure of how much useful information there is in a system, such as the Internet, as a proportion of the entire contents

 

 

Notes to Time Machine

1.2 The geometry, for instance, they taught you at school is founded on a misconception.”

1.11 really four dimensions, three which we call the three planes of Space, and a fourth, Time.

1.13 There is no difference between time and any of the three dimensions of Space except that our consciousness moves along it.

[1.15] “It is simply this. That Space, as our mathematicians have it, is spoken of as having three dimensions, which one may call Length, Breadth, and Thickness, and is always definable by reference to three planes, each at right angles to the others. But some philosophical people have been asking why three dimensions particularly—why not another direction at right angles to the other three?—and have even tried to construct a Four-Dimensional geometry. Professor Simon Newcomb was expounding this to the New York Mathematical Society only a month or so ago. . . . ”

1.18, 1.28 analogy to make unknown known

1.26 Our mental existences, which are immaterial and have no dimensions, are passing along the Time-Dimension with a uniform velocity from the cradle to the grave.

1.58 a breath of wind, and the lamp flame jumped. One of the candles on the mantel was blown out, and the little machine suddenly swung round, became indistinct, was seen as a ghost for a second perhaps, as an eddy of faintly glittering brass and ivory; and it was gone—vanished! Save for the lamp the table was bare.

[1.65] After an interval the Psychologist had an inspiration. “It must have gone into the past if it has gone anywhere,” he said.

1.71 We cannot see it, nor can we appreciate this machine, any more than we can the spoke of a wheel spinning, or a bullet flying through the air.

[1.76] “Upon that machine,” said the Time Traveller, holding the lamp aloft, “I intend to explore time. Is that plain? I was never more serious in my life.”

 

 

[2.8] He was in an amazing plight. His coat was dusty and dirty, and smeared with green down the sleeves; his hair disordered, and as it seemed to me greyer—

 

 

[3.4] "I am afraid I cannot convey the peculiar sensations of time travelling. They are excessively unpleasant. There is a feeling exactly like that one has upon a switchback*—of a helpless headlong motion!

night followed day like the flapping of a black wing.

3.6 with a kind of madness growing upon me, I flung myself into futurity

[3.7] "What strange developments of humanity, what wonderful advances upon our rudimentary civilization, I thought, . . .  I saw great and splendid architecture rising about me,

3.11 sphinx

[3.13] "Already I saw other vast shapes—huge buildings with intricate parapets and tall columns,

[3.14] "In a circular opening, high up in the wall of the nearer house, I saw a group of figures clad in rich soft robes. They had seen me, and their faces were directed towards me.

3.15 a slight creature—perhaps four feet high

how warm the air was

3.16 a very beautiful and graceful creature, but indescribably frail.

 

[4.1] "In another moment we were standing face to face, I and this fragile thing out of futurity. He came straight up to me and laughed into my eyes. The absence from his bearing of any sign of fear struck me at once. Then he turned to the two others who were following him and spoke to them in a strange and very sweet and liquid tongue.

4.2 touched my hand. Then I felt other soft little tentacles upon my back and shoulders.

4.3 something in these pretty little people that inspired confidence—a graceful gentleness, a certain childlike ease

I unscrewed the little levers that would set it in motion, and put these in my pocket.

[4.4] "And then, looking more nearly into their features, I saw some further peculiarities in their Dresden china [fine porcelain] type of prettiness. Their hair, which was uniformly curly, came to a sharp end at the neck and cheek; there was not the faintest suggestion of it on the face, and their ears were singularly minute. The mouths were small, with bright red, rather thin lips, and the little chins ran to a point. The eyes were large and mild; and—this may seem egotism on my part—I fancied even that there was a certain lack of the interest I might have expected in them.

4.5 hesitating for a moment how to express time, I pointed to the sun. At once a quaintly pretty little figure in checkered purple and white followed my gesture, and then astonished me by imitating the sound of thunder.

4.6 were these creatures fools? You may hardly understand how it took me. You see I had always anticipated that the people of the year Eight Hundred and Two Thousand odd would be incredibly in front of us in knowledge, art, everything. Then one of them suddenly asked me a question that showed him to be on the intellectual level of one of our five-year-old children

4.7 beautiful flowers altogether new to me

the memory of my confident anticipations of a profoundly grave and intellectual posterity came, with irresistible merriment, to my mind.

4.8 a long-neglected and yet weedless garden

4.10 innumerable tables made of slabs of polished stone, raised perhaps a foot from the floor, and upon these were heaps of fruits.

4.12 extremely rich and picturesque. There were, perhaps, a couple of hundred people dining in the hall, and most of them, seated as near to me as they could come, were watching me with interest, their little eyes shining over the fruit they were eating. All were clad in the same soft and yet strong, silky material.

4.13 strict vegetarians

horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, had followed the Ichthyosaurus into extinction.

4.14 presently a fair-haired little creature seemed to grasp my intention and repeated a name.

4.14 presently I had a score of noun substantives at least at my command; and then I got to demonstrative pronouns, and even the verb "to eat."

[4.15] "their lack of interest. They would come to me with eager cries of astonishment, like children, but like children they would soon stop examining me and wander away after some other toy.

4.16 the year Eight Hundred and Two Thousand Seven Hundred and One A.D. For that, I should explain, was the date the little dials of my machine recorded.

palace-like buildings, but the house and the cottage, which form such characteristic features of our own English landscape, had disappeared.

[4.19] "Communism," said I to myself.

4.20 in all the differences of texture and bearing that now mark off the sexes from each other, these people of the future were alike. And the children seemed to my eyes to be but the miniatures of their parents. I judged, then, that the children of that time were extremely precocious, physically at least [sexually active?], and I found afterwards abundant verification of my opinion.

4.21 the strength of a man and the softness of a woman, the institution of the family, and the differentiation of occupations are mere militant necessities of an age of physical force. Where population is balanced and abundant, much childbearing becomes an evil rather than a blessing to the State; where violence comes but rarely and offspring are secure, there is less necessity—indeed there is no necessity—for an efficient family, and the specialization of the sexes with reference to their children's needs disappears. We see some beginnings of this even in our own time, and in this future age it was complete. This, I must remind you, was my speculation at the time. Later, I was to appreciate how far it fell short of the reality.

4.22 a pretty little structure, like a well under a cupola

4.26 humanity upon the wane

We improve our favorite plants and animals—and how few they are—gradually by selective breeding; . . . Nature, too, is shy and slow in our clumsy hands. Some day all this will be better organized, and still better. That is the drift of the current in spite of the eddies. The whole world will be intelligent, educated, and co-operating; things will move faster and faster towards the subjugation of Nature. In the end, wisely and carefully we shall readjust the balance of animal and vegetable life to suit our human needs.

4.27 the air was free from gnats, the earth from weeds or fungi; everywhere were fruits and sweet and delightful flowers; brilliant butterflies flew hither and thither. The ideal of preventive medicine was attained. Diseases had been stamped out.

4.28 no toil. There were no signs of struggle, neither social nor economical struggle. The shop, the advertisement, traffic, all that commerce which constitutes the body of our world, was gone. It was natural on that golden evening that I should jump at the idea of a social paradise. The difficulty of increasing population had been met, I guessed, and population had ceased to increase.

[4.29] "But with this change in condition comes inevitably adaptations to the change. What, unless biological science is a mass of errors, is the cause of human intelligence and vigor? Hardship and freedom: conditions under which the active, strong, and subtle survive and the weaker go to the wall; conditions that put a premium upon the loyal alliance of capable men, upon self-restraint, patience, and decision. And the institution of the family,

4.31 the fate of energy in security; it takes to art and to eroticism, and then come languor and decay.

4.32 We are kept keen on the grindstone of pain and necessity

4.33 very simple was my explanation, and plausible enough—as most wrong theories are! 

 

[5.3] "The Time Machine was gone!

5.6 some hitherto unsuspected power

5.9  felt hopelessly cut off from my own kind—a strange animal in an unknown world.

5.11 queer narrow footprints like those I could imagine made by a sloth

5.15 their language was excessively simple—almost exclusively composed of concrete substantives and verbs. There seemed to be few, if any, abstract terms, or little use of figurative language

5.16 all of them I heard a certain sound: a thud-thud-thud, like the beating of some big engine

5.18 visions of Utopias and coming times which I have read

5.19 aged and infirm among this people there were none.

5.20 They spent all their time in playing gently, in bathing in the river, in making love in a half-playful fashion, in eating fruit and sleeping. I could not see how things were kept going.

[5.22] "That day, too, I made a friend

[5.25] "It was from her, too, that I learned that fear had not yet left the world. She was fearless enough in the daylight, and she had the oddest confidence in me; for once, in a foolish moment, I made threatening grimaces at her, and she simply laughed at them. But she dreaded the dark, dreaded shadows, dreaded black things. Darkness to her was the one thing dreadful. It was a singularly passionate emotion, and it set me thinking and observing.

5.26 some greyish animal

5.27 a solitary white, ape-like creature

5.29 how much hotter than our own was the weather of this Golden Age.

But people, unfamiliar with such speculations as those of the younger Darwin, forget

5.30 A pair of eyes, luminous by reflection against the daylight without, was watching me out of the darkness.

5.31 instinctive dread of wild beasts

a queer little ape-like figure,

5.32 a dull white, and had strange large greyish-red eyes; also that there was flaxen hair on its head and down its back.

like a human spider! It was clambering down the wall, and now I saw for the first time a number of metal foot and hand rests forming a kind of ladder down the shaft.

5.33 gradually, the truth dawned on me: that Man had not remained one species, but had differentiated into two distinct animals: that my graceful children of the Upperworld were not the sole descendants of our generation, but that this bleached, obscene, nocturnal Thing, which had flashed before me, was also heir to all the ages.

5.37 in this artificial Underworld that such work as was necessary to the comfort of the daylight race was done? The notion was so plausible that I at once accepted it, and went on to assume the how of this splitting of the human species.

5.38 the gradual widening of the present merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and the Laborer,

5.39 exclusive tendency of richer people—due, no doubt, to the increasing refinement of their education, and the widening gulf between them and the rude violence of the poor—is already leading to the closing, in their interest, of considerable portions of the surface of the land. About London, for instance, perhaps half the prettier country is shut in against intrusion. And this same widening gulf—which is due to the length and expense of the higher educational process and the increased facilities for and temptations towards refined habits on the part of the rich—will make that exchange between class and class, that promotion by intermarriage which at present retards the splitting of our species along lines of social stratification, less and less frequent. So, in the end, above ground you must have the Haves, pursuing pleasure and comfort and beauty, and below ground the Have-nots, the Workers getting continually adapted to the conditions of their labor.