Mexican Americans in the Southwestern U.S. were once conquered and dispossessed like American Indians and are thus a minority, but
The identity of Mexican Americans as immigrants is further complicated by the fact that when they immigrate to states like Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada, they are entering lands that once belonged to Mexico.
The nearness of the Mexican border with the United States may mean less detachment from their home country for Mexican Americans, potentially leading to different attitudes toward assimilation.
Through this proximity to the USA, Mexican Americans, like other New World immigrants, may have seen the darker sides of American society (e.g., political, economic, and cultural imperialism) and therefore are careful of negatively assimilating to family breakdown, women's rights, etc.
Maintenance of traditional extended families (often fragmented or dysfunctional) with traditional gender roles are more common in minorities than in dominant culture. (tradition / modernity). Brevity of childhood, beginning work early to support family, and early child-bearing ("age at first birth") are contrary to dominant culture's extended childhoods, but this may result from class more than ethnicity.
Trends toward family breakdown may be intensified by government immigration regulations that separate families, which can resemble family disruptions suffered by American Indians (boarding schools, forced migration) and African Americans (families separated by slave market and for dehumanizing purposes).
Different dominant-culture settlement patterns led to greater rates of intermarriage in Mexico and other Latino states between whites and people of color. (See mestizo.)
Since American society distinguishes "minorities" by "race," Mexican Americans and other Hispanics / Latinos further frustrate familiar black-white or dark-light divisions for minority & dominant cultures. Mexican Americans may be any color or appearance, though the variable mestizo mix of European and Indian is most familiar.
Distinct historical backgrounds of North American and Central American immigration.
Distinct racial relations and attitudes result.
Different migration patterns.
Mexican Americans as minority in USA:
Historical: Conquest and annexation by the United States of Mexican territory in 1800s is historically analogous to conquest of American Indian lands in earlier centuries. (Involuntary contact with dominant culture)
(+ Minority status in Central America: American Indians were often enslaved or otherwise exploited by Spanish colonizers.)
Color code: variation from "white = good" can cause negative stereotyping.
Brevity of childhood, beginning work early to support family, and early child-bearing ("age at first birth") are contrary to dominant culture's extended childhoods, but this may result from class more than ethnicity.
Gender inequality reinforced by Spanish conquest: Since the model of mestizo marriage was Male Conquistador + Female Indian, standard gender inequalities are reinforced by racial or ethnic inequalities, creating "double minority" status.
Mexican Americans as immigrants to USA:
Historical: Since most of "New Spain" became part of the USA, Mexican immigration to former parts of Mexico and other parts of the USA has taken place in several waves, responding to unrest in Mexico (e.g., the Mexican Revolution of the 1910s, the Mexican debt crisis of the 1980s-90s, NAFTA in 1990s) and need for cheap manual labor in the USA, especially during war-time (e.g. Bracero program during WW2).
Racial / ethnic: Mestizo identity connects not only with minority Indian but also with dominant European identity.
Intermarriage is a primary driver of assimilation. Since intermarriage is inherent in the Mexican American or mestizo identity, Mexican Americans appear to adapt easily to intermarriage with other ethnic groups within the USA.
Wild card: Mexican Americans are unique among immigrants
because of proximity to homeland, shifting border, cultural contact , which
both expedites and complicates issues of
, which both expedites and complicates issues of assimilation.