Instructor's note: Thoreau's life represents a rare American who questions and opposes the American Dream of using one's talents to gain wealth and prestige by filling or exploiting the real or manufactured needs of others. For an earlier example of such "voluntary simplicity," see the American Quaker writer John Woolman (1720-1772), Journal 22, 38, 40a, 68, 71.
Henry David Thoreau was the last male
descendant of a French ancestor who came to this country from the Isle of
He was born in
 His father was a manufacturer of lead-pencils, and Henry
applied himself for a time to this craft, believing he could make a better
pencil than was then in use. After completing his experiments, he exhibited his
work to chemists and artists in
 He resumed his endless walks and miscellaneous studies, making every day some new acquaintance with Nature, though as yet never speaking of zoology or botany, since, though very studious of natural facts, he was incurious of technical and textual science. [compare Romantic attitude toward science to Walt Whitman, "When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer"]
 At this time, a strong, healthy youth, fresh from college, whilst all his companions were choosing their profession, or eager to begin some lucrative employment, it was inevitable that his thoughts should be exercised on the same question, and it required a rare decision to refuse all the accustomed paths and keep his solitary freedom at the cost of disappointing the natural expectations of his family and friends: all the more difficult that he had a perfect probity [integrity], was exact in securing his own independence, and in holding every man to the like duty.
 But Thoreau never faltered. He was a born protestant [i.e., protester, dissident]. He declined to give up his large ambition of knowledge and action for any narrow craft or profession, aiming at a much more comprehensive calling, the art of living well. If he slighted and defied the opinions of others, it was only that he was more intent to reconcile his practice with his own belief. Never idle or self-indulgent, he preferred, when he wanted money, earning it by some piece of manual labor agreeable to him, as building a boat or a fence, planting, grafting, surveying or other short work, to any long engagements. With his hardy habits and few wants*, his skill in wood-craft, and his powerful arithmetic, he was very competent to live in any part of the world. It would cost him less to supply his wants than another. He was therefore secure of his leisure. [*"few wants" = voluntary simplicity]
 A natural skill for mensuration [measurement], growing out of his mathematical knowledge and his habit of ascertaining the measures and distances of objects which interested him, the size of trees, the depth and extent of ponds and rivers, the height of mountains and the air-line distance of his favorite summits, this, and his intimate knowledge of the territory about Concord, made him drift into the profession of land-surveyor. It had the advantage for him that it led him continually into new and secluded grounds, and helped his studies of Nature. His accuracy and skill in his work were readily appreciated, and he found all the employment he wanted.
 He could easily solve the problems of the surveyor, but he was daily beset with graver questions, which he manfully confronted. He interrogated every custom, and wished to settle all his practice [behavior, lifestyle] on an ideal foundation. He was a protestant, a outrance [outsider], and few lives contain so many renunciations. He was bred to no profession; he never married; he lived alone; he never went to church; he never voted; he refused to pay a tax to the State; he ate no flesh; he drank no wine; he never knew the use of tobacco; and though a naturalist, he used neither trap nor gun. [<negative catalog] He chose, wisely no doubt for himself, to be the bachelor of thought and Nature. He had no talent for wealth, and knew how to be poor without the least hint of squalor [dirty misery] or inelegance. Perhaps he fell into his way of living without forecasting it much, but approved it with later wisdom. "I am often reminded," he wrote in his journal, "that if I had bestowed on me the wealth of Croesus*, my aims must be still the same." He had no temptations to fight against,—no appetites, no passions, no taste for elegant trifles. A fine house, dress, the manners and talk of highly cultivated people were all thrown away on him. He much preferred a good Indian, and considered these refinements as impediments to conversation, wishing to meet his companion on the simplest terms. He declined invitations to dinner-parties, because there each was in every one's way, and he could not meet the individuals to any purpose. "They make their pride," he said, "in making their dinner cost much; I make my pride in making my dinner cost little." When asked at table what dish he preferred, he answered, "The nearest." He did not like the taste of wine, and never had a vice in his life. He said,"I have a faint recollection of pleasure derived from smoking dried lily-stems, before I was a man. I had commonly a supply of these. I have never smoked anything more noxious." [*Croesus = 6c BC Lydian king renowned for wealth]
 He chose to be rich by making his wants few*, and supplying them himself. In his travels, he used the railroad only to get over so much country as was unimportant to the present purpose, walking hundreds of miles, avoiding taverns, buying a lodging in farmers' and fishermen's houses, as cheaper, and more agreeable to him, and because there he could better find the men and the information he wanted. [*"wants few" = voluntary simplicity]
 There was somewhat [something] military in his nature, not to be subdued, always manly and able, but rarely tender, as if he did not feel himself except in opposition. He wanted a fallacy to expose, a blunder to pillory, I may say required a little sense of victory, a roll of the drum, to call his powers into full exercise. It cost him nothing to say No; indeed he found it much easier than to say Yes. It seemed as if his first instinct on hearing a proposition was to controvert it, so impatient was he of the limitations of our daily thought. This habit, of course, is a little chilling to the social affections; and though the companion would in the end acquit him of any malice or untruth, yet it mars conversation. Hence, no equal companion stood in affectionate relations with one so pure and guileless. "I love Henry," said one of his friends, "but I cannot like him; and as for taking his arm, I should as soon think of taking the arm of an elm-tree."
 Yet, hermit and stoic as he was, he was really fond of sympathy, and threw himself heartily and childlike into the company of young people whom he loved, and whom he delighted to entertain, as he only could, with the varied and endless anecdotes of his experiences by field and river: and he was always ready to lead a huckleberry-party* or a search for chestnuts or grapes. Talking, one day, of a public discourse, Henry remarked that whatever succeeded with the audience was bad. I said, "Who would not like to write something which all can read, like 'Robinson Crusoe?' and who does not see with regret that his page is not solid with a right materialistic treatment, which delights everybody?" [<popular literature] Henry objected, of course, and vaunted the better lectures which reached only a few persons. [<compare popular & classic literature] But, at supper, a young girl, understanding that he was to lecture at the Lyceum [public lecture-hall], sharply asked him, "Whether his lecture would be a nice, interesting story, such as she wished to hear, or whether it was one of those old philosophical things that she did not care about." Henry turned to her, and bethought himself, and, I saw, was trying to believe that he had matter that might fit her and her brother, who were to sit up and go to the lecture, if it was a good one for them. [*compare Thoreau’s Resistance to Civil Government , where upon leaving jail Thoreau leads a huckleberry party; also paragraph 30 below; a huckleberry is like or related to a blueberry]
He was a speaker and actor* of the
truth, born such, and was ever running into dramatic* situations from this cause.
In any circumstance it interested all bystanders to know what part Henry would
take, and what he would say; and he did not disappoint expectation, but used an
original judgment on each emergency.
In 1845 he built
himself a small framed house on the shores of
 No opposition or ridicule had any weight with him. He coldly and fully stated his opinion without affecting to believe that it was the opinion of the company. It was of no consequence if every one present held the opposite opinion. On one occasion he went to the University Library to procure some books. The librarian refused to lend them. Mr. Thoreau repaired to the President, who stated to him the rules and usages, which permitted the loan of books to resident graduates, to clergymen who were alumni, and to some others resident within a circle of ten miles' radius from the College. Mr. Thoreau explained to the President that the railroad had destroyed the old scale of distances,—that the library was useless, yes, and President and College useless, on the terms of his rules,—that the one benefit he owed to the College was its library,—that, at this moment, not only his want of books was imperative, but he wanted a large number of books, and assured him that he, Thoreau, and not the librarian, was the proper custodian of these. In short, the President found the petitioner so formidable, and the rules getting to look so ridiculous, that he ended by giving him a privilege which in his hands proved unlimited thereafter.
 No truer American existed than Thoreau.
His preference of his country and condition was genuine, and his aversion from
English and European manners and tastes almost reached contempt. He listened
impatiently to news or
 But idealist as he was, standing for abolition of slavery, abolition of tariffs, almost for abolition of government, it is needless to say he found himself not only unrepresented in actual politics, but almost equally opposed to every class of reformers. Yet he paid the tribute of his uniform respect to the Anti-Slavery party. One man, whose personal acquaintance he had formed, he honored with exceptional regard. Before the first friendly word had been spoken for Captain John Brown [controversial abolitionist activist-terrorist], he sent notices to most houses in Concord that he would speak in a public hall on the condition and character of John Brown, on Sunday evening, and invited all people to come. The Republican Committee, the Abolitionist Committee, sent him word that it was premature and not advisable. He replied, "I did not send to you for advice, but to announce that I am to speak." The hall was filled at an early hour by people of all parties, and his earnest eulogy of the hero was heard by all respectfully, by many with a sympathy that surprised themselves.
 It was said of Plotinus [Neo-Platonic philosopher] that he was ashamed of his body, and 't is very likely he had good reason for it,—that his body was a bad servant, and he had not skill in dealing with the material world, as happens often to men of abstract intellect. But Mr. Thoreau was equipped with a most adapted and serviceable body. He was of short stature, firmly built, of light complexion, with strong, serious blue eyes, and a grave aspect,—his face covered in the late years with a becoming beard. His senses were acute, his frame well-knit and hardy, his hands strong and skilful in the use of tools. And there was a wonderful fitness of body and mind. He could pace sixteen rods [rod=5.5 yards] more accurately than another man could measure them with rod and chain. He could find his path in the woods at night, he said, better by his feet than his eyes. He could estimate the measure of a tree very well by his eye; he could estimate the weight of a calf or a pig, like a dealer. From a box containing a bushel or more of loose pencils, he could take up with his hands fast enough just a dozen pencils at every grasp. He was a good swimmer, runner, skater, boatman, and would probably outwalk most countrymen in a day's journey. And the relation of body to mind was still finer than we have indicated. He said he wanted every stride his legs made. The length of his walk uniformly made the length of his writing. If shut up in the house he did not write at all.
 He has a strong common sense, like that which Rose Flammock*, the weaver's daughter in Scott's romance, commends in her father, as resembling a yardstick, which, whilst it measures dowels and diaper [cloth], can equally well measure tapestry and cloth of gold. He had always a new resource. When I was planting forest trees, and had procured half a peck of acorns, he said that only a small portion of them would be sound, and proceeded to examine them and select the sound ones. But finding this took time, he said, "I think if you put them all into water the good ones will sink;" which experiment we tried with success. He could plan a garden or a house or a barn; would have been competent to lead a "Pacific Exploring Expedition;" could give judicious counsel in the gravest private or public affairs. [*Rose Flammock, character in Sir Walter Scott's Romantic novel The Betrothed (1825)]
 He lived for the day, not cumbered and
mortified by his memory. If he brought you yesterday a new proposition, he
would bring you to-day another not less revolutionary.
A very industrious man, and setting,
like all highly organized men, a high value on his time, he seemed the only man
of leisure in town, always ready for any excursion that promised well, or for
conversation prolonged into late hours. His trenchant sense was never
stopped by his rules of daily prudence, but was always up to the new occasion.
He liked and used the simplest food, yet, when some one urged a vegetable diet,
Thoreau thought all diets a very small matter, saying that "the man who shoots
the buffalo lives better than the man who boards at the Graham House."
[as in Graham Crackers, then a
popular diet for health]
said, "You can sleep near the railroad, and never be disturbed: Nature knows
very well what sounds are worth attending to, and has made up her mind not to
hear the railroad-whistle. But things respect the devout mind, and a mental
ecstasy was never interrupted." He noted what repeatedly befell him, that, after
receiving from a distance a rare plant, he would presently find the same in his
own haunts. And those pieces of luck which happen only to good players happened
to him. One day, walking with a
stranger, who inquired where Indian arrowheads could be found, he replied,
"Everywhere," and, stooping forward, picked one on the instant from the ground.
 He understood the matter in hand at a
glance, and saw the limitations and poverty of those he talked with, so that
nothing seemed concealed from such terrible eyes. I have
repeatedly known young
men of sensibility converted in a moment to the belief that this was the man
they were in search of, the man of men, who could tell them all they should do.
His own dealing with them was never affectionate, but superior,
scorning their petty ways,—very slowly conceding, or not conceding at all, the
promise of his society at their houses, or even at his own. "Would he not walk
with them?" "He did not know. There was nothing so important to him as his walk;
he had no walks to throw away on company." Visits were offered him from
respectful parties, but he declined them. Admiring friends offered to carry him
at their own cost to the
 Mr. Thoreau dedicated his genius with
such entire love to the fields, hills and waters of his native town, that he
made them known and interesting to all reading Americans, and to people over the
sea. The river on whose banks he was born and died he knew from its springs to
its confluence with the
One of the weapons he used . . . was a
whim which grew on him by indulgence, yet appeared in gravest statement, namely,
of extolling his own town and neighborhood as the most favored center for
natural observation. He remarked that the Flora [plant life]
 I think his fancy for referring everything to the meridian of
 It was a pleasure and a privilege to walk with him. He knew the country like a fox or a bird, and passed through it as freely by paths of his own. He knew every track [print] in the snow or on the ground, and what creature had taken this path before him. One must submit abjectly to such a guide, and the reward was great. Under his arm he carried an old music-book to press plants; in his pocket, his diary and pencil, a spy-glass for birds, microscope, jack-knife and twine. He wore a straw hat, stout shoes, strong gray trousers, to brave scrub-oaks and smilax [briars], and to climb a tree for a hawk's or a squirrel's nest. He waded into the pool for the water-plants, and his strong legs were no insignificant part of his armor. On the day I speak of he looked for the Menyanthes, detected it across the wide pool, and, on examination of the florets, decided that it had been in flower five days. He drew out of his breast-pocket his diary, and read the names of all the plants that should bloom on this day, whereof he kept account as a banker when his notes fall due. The Cypripedium [type of northern orchid] not due till to-morrow. He thought that, if waked up from a trance, in this swamp, he could tell by the plants what time of the year it was within two days. . . .
 His determination on Natural History
was organic. He confessed that he sometimes felt like a hound or a panther, and,
if born among Indians, would have been a fell
hunter. But, restrained by his
 No college ever offered him a diploma, or a professor's chair; no academy made him its corresponding secretary, its discoverer or even its member. Perhaps these learned bodies feared the satire of his presence. . . . For not a particle of respect had he to the opinions of any man or body of men, but homage solely to the truth itself; and as he discovered everywhere among doctors some leaning of courtesy, it discredited them. He grew to be revered and admired by his townsmen, who had at first known him only as an oddity. The farmers who employed him as a surveyor soon discovered his rare accuracy and skill, his knowledge of their lands, of trees, of birds, of Indian remains and the like, which enabled him to tell every farmer more than he knew before of his own farm; so that he began to feel a little as if Mr. Thoreau had better rights in his land than he. . . .
 Indian relics abound in
 He was equally interested in every natural fact. The depth of his perception found likeness of law throughout Nature, and I know not any genius who so swiftly inferred universal law from the single fact. He was not pedant of a department. His eye was open to beauty, and his ear to music. He found these, not in rare conditions, but wheresoever he went. . . .
 Thoreau was sincerity itself, and might fortify the convictions of prophets in the ethical laws by his holy living. It was an affirmative experience which refused to be set aside. A truth-speaker he, capable of the most deep and strict conversation; a physician to the wounds of any soul; a friend, knowing not only the secret of friendship, but almost worshipped by those few persons who reported to him as their confessor and prophet, and knew the deep value of his mind and great heart. He thought that without religion or devotion of some kind nothing great was ever accomplished . . . .
 His virtues, of course, sometimes ran into extremes. It was easy to trace to the inexorable demand on all for exact truth that austerity which made this willing hermit more solitary even than he wished. Himself of a perfect probity, he required not less of others. He had a disgust at crime, and no worldly success could cover it. He detected paltering [insincere talk] as readily in dignified and prosperous persons as in beggars, and with equal scorn. Such dangerous frankness was in his dealing that his admirers called him "that terrible Thoreau," as if he spoke when silent, and was still present when he had departed. . . .
 Had his genius been only contemplative, he had been fitted to
his life, but with his energy and practical ability he seemed born for great
enterprise and for command; and I so much regret the loss of his rare powers of
action, that I cannot help counting it a fault in him that he had no ambition.
Wanting this, instead of engineering for all
 He had many elegancies of his own, whilst he scoffed at conventional elegance. Thus, he could not bear to hear the sound of his own steps, the grit of gravel; and therefore never willingly walked in the road, but in the grass, on mountains and in woods. His senses were acute, and he remarked that by night every dwelling-house gives out bad air, like a slaughter-house. He liked the pure fragrance of meliot [herb]. . . . The scent, of course, reveals what is concealed from the other senses. By it he detected earthiness. He delighted in echoes, and said they were almost the only kind of kindred voices that he heard. He loved Nature so well, was so happy in her solitude, that he became very jealous [apprehensive] of cities and the sad work which their refinements and artifices made with man and his dwelling. The axe was always destroying his forest. "Thank God," he said, "they cannot cut down the clouds!" . . .
 I subjoin a few sentences taken from his unpublished manuscripts, not only as records of his thought and feeling, but for their power of description and literary excellence:
[33-41 = aphorisms]
 "Some circumstantial evidence is very strong, as when you find a trout in the milk." . . .
 "Sugar is not so sweet to the palate as sound to the healthy ear."
 "I put on some hemlock-boughs, and the rich salt crackling of their leaves was like mustard to the ear, the crackling of uncountable regiments. Dead trees love the fire."
 "The bluebird carries the sky on his back."
 "The tanager flies through the green foliage as if it would ignite the leaves." . . . [tanager = scarlet tanager, bright red American bird]
 "Fire is the most tolerable third party."
 "Nature made ferns for pure leaves, to show what she could do in that line." . . .
 "How did these beautiful rainbow-tints get into the shell of the fresh-water clam, buried in the mud at the bottom of our dark river?" . . .
 "I ask to be melted. You can only ask of the metals that they be tender to the fire that melts them. To nought else can they be tender."
 There is a flower known to botanists, one of the same genus with our summer plant called "Life-Everlasting," a Gnaphalium like that, which grows on the most inaccessible cliffs of the Tyrolese mountains, where the chamois [European antelope] dare hardly venture, and which the hunter, tempted by its beauty, and by his love (for it is immensely valued by the Swiss maidens), climbs the cliffs to gather, and is sometimes found dead at the foot, with the flower in his hand. It is called by botanists the Gnaphalium leontopodium, but by the Swiss Edelweiss, which signifies Noble Purity.
 Thoreau seemed to me living in the hope to gather this plant, which belonged to him of right. The scale on which his studies proceeded was so large as to require longevity, and we were the less prepared for his sudden disappearance. The country knows not yet, or in the least part, how great a son it has lost. It seems an injury that he should leave in the midst of his broken task which none else can finish, a kind of indignity to so noble a soul that he should depart out of Nature before yet he has been really shown to his peers for what he is. But he, at least, is content. His soul was made for the noblest society; he had in a short life exhausted the capabilities of this world; wherever there is knowledge, wherever there is virtue, wherever there is beauty, he will find a home.