Online Texts for Craig White's Literature Courses
in the Old Testament of the Bible
from The Book
chapters 1-15; chapter 16, verses 1-4; chapter 20; chapter 31, verse 12 through
chapter 32 complete.
Moses parting the Red Sea
Exodus chapter 1
these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into
Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.
[ = son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham; father of 10 of the 12 tribes
Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
Zebulun, and Benjamin,
and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy
souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.
[Not Joseph the husband of Mary and stepfather of Jesus, but Joseph
of the "coat of many colors," sold into slavery in Egypt by his
brothers; a prophetic dreamer, who also appears in the Qur'an as a
Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.
the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and
multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with
them. [population /
demographics affect immigration]
there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.
he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of
Israel are more and mightier than we:
on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to
pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our
enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.
they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their
burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and
Raamses. [historic cities of
Egypt also named in Greek & Roman sources; one of the Exodus story's
few connections to history known beyond its textual tradition]
the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And
they were grieved because of the children of Israel.
the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:
they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in
brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service,
wherein they made them serve, was with rigor.
the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of
the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:
he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and
see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him:
but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.
the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded
them, but saved the men children alive.
the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why
have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive?
the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as
the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the
midwives come in unto them.
God dealt well with the midwives: and
the people multiplied, and
waxed very mighty.
it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them
Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye
shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.
Exodus chapter 2
[Moses's birth & adoption by the
family of Pharaoh. For Sigmund Freud in Moses and Monotheism (1939), Moses
was an Egyptian
nobleman by birth who inherited the monotheistic theology of the earlier Pharaoh
Akhenaten, but Moses's leadership of the Jews required the following story giving him Jewish
Other heroic figures whose parenthood was switched include Oedipus and Jesus.]
there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter
of Levi. [i.e., members of the
Levites, 1 of the 12 tribes of Israel]
the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him that he
was a goodly child, she hid him three months.
when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of
bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the
child therein; and she laid it in the flags
[reeds or rushes] by the river's [edge]. [ark = small chest; bulrushes =
paper reeds, a river sedge of the Nile used for making boats]
sister stood afar off, to [learn] what would be done to him.
the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and
her maidens walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the
ark among the flags [reeds or
rushes], she sent her maid to fetch it.
when she had opened it, she saw the child: and, behold, the babe
wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the
said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call to thee a
nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?
Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and called the
Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it
for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the women took the
child, and nursed it.
the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he
became her son. And she called his name Moses: and she said, Because
I drew him out of the water.
it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went
out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens: and he spied an
Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren.
he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no
man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.
when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews
strove together: and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore
smitest thou thy fellow?
he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou
to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and
said, Surely this thing is known.
when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But
fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and
he sat down by a well.
the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew
water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock.
the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and
helped them, and watered their flock.
when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are
come so soon to day?
they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the
shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock.
he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have
left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.
Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he
gave Moses Zipporah
she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I
have been a stranger in a strange land.
[title of 1961 science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein]
it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and
the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they
cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.
God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant
Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto
Exodus chapter 3
Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of
Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and
came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb.
the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out
of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush
burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.
Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why
the bush is not burnt.
when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto
him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he
said, Here am I.
he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy
feet, for the place whereon thou standest is
he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he
was afraid to look upon God.
the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people
which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their
taskmasters; for I know their sorrows;
I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians,
and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a
large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place
of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.
therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come
unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the
Egyptians oppress them.
now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou
mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of
Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh,
and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of
he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a
token unto thee, that I have sent thee: When thou hast brought
forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this
Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of
Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath
sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name?
what shall I say unto them?
God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt
thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto
God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the
children of Israel, the LORD God of your fathers, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me
unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto
and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The
LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of
Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and
seen that which is done to you in Egypt:
I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt
unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the
Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites,
unto a land flowing with milk and honey.
they [Jews] shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and
the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say
unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now
let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the
wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.
I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by
a mighty hand.
I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders
which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let
I will give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians:
and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go
every woman shall borrow of her neighbor, and of her that
sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold,
and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your
daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.
Exodus chapter 4
Moses answered and said, But, behold,
they will not believe me,
nor hearken unto my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath not
appeared unto thee.
the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he said,
[a staff or
he said, Cast it on the ground. And
he cast it on the ground,
and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.
the LORD said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and take it by
the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it
became a rod in his hand:
they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the God of
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared
the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy
bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it
out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.
he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his
hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and,
behold, it was turned again as his other flesh.
it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither
hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe
the voice of the latter sign.
it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two
signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of
the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the
water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon
the dry land.
Moses said unto the LORD, O my LORD,
I am not eloquent, neither
heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I
am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.
the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh
the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the
therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what
thou shalt say.
he said, O my LORD, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom
thou wilt send.
the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said,
not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well.
And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.
thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth: and I
will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you
what ye shall do.
he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be, even
he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him
instead of God.
thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do
Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said
unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren
which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And
Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.
the LORD said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt: for
all the men are dead which sought thy life.
Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and
he returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God
in his hand.
the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt,
see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have
put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall
not let the people go. . . .
Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD who had sent him, and
all the signs which he had commanded him.
Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the
children of Israel:
Aaron spake all the words which the LORD had spoken unto Moses,
and did the signs in the sight of the people.
the people believed: and when they heard that the LORD had
visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon
their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.
Exodus chapter 5
afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith
the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a
feast unto me in the wilderness.
Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to
let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel
they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go,
we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice
unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or
with the sword.
the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and
Aaron, let the people from their works?
[that is, ask for time off work] get you unto your
Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and
ye make them rest from their burdens.
Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people,
and their officers, saying,
shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as
heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.
the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall
lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be
idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our
there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour
therein; and let them not regard vain words.
the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and
they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not
give you straw.
ye, get you straw where ye can find it: yet not ought of your
work shall be diminished.
the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of
Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw.
the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfil your works, your
daily tasks, as when there was straw.
the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's
taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded,
Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both
yesterday and to day, as heretofore?
the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto
Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants?
is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, Make
brick: and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but
the fault is in thine own people.
he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, Let us go
and do sacrifice to the LORD.
therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you,
yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.
the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in
evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought from
your bricks of your daily task.
they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came
forth from Pharaoh:
they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because
ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh,
and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to
Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, LORD, wherefore hast
thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast
since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil
to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.
Exodus chapter 6
1Then the LORD said unto
Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh: for with a strong
hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his
2And God spake unto Moses,
and said unto him, I am the LORD:
3And I appeared unto
Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name
JEHOVAH was I not known to them.
4And I have also
established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of
their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.
5And I have also heard the
groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I
have remembered my covenant.
6Wherefore say unto the
children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the
burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will
redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments:
I will take you to
me for a people, and I will be to you a God
[the essential terms of the covenant]: and ye shall know that I am the
LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
I will bring you in
unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac,
and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD.
9And Moses spake so unto the
children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and
for cruel bondage.
10And the LORD spake unto
11Go in, speak unto Pharaoh
king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.
12And Moses spake before the
LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how
then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips?
[Common interpretations of this phrase refer to
Moses’s sense of covenantal unworthiness or to a speech impediment.]
13And the LORD spake unto
Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and
unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of
Egypt. . . .
Exodus chapter 7
1And the LORD said unto
Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be
2Thou shalt speak all that I
command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the
children of Israel out of his land.
I will harden
Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.
4But Pharaoh shall not
hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine
armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great
5And the Egyptians shall
know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring
out the children of Israel from among them.
6And Moses and Aaron did as
the LORD commanded them, so did they.
7And Moses was fourscore
years old , and Aaron fourscore and
three years old , when they spoke unto
8And the LORD spoke unto
Moses and unto Aaron, saying,
9When Pharaoh shall speak
unto you, saying, Show a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take
thy rod [staff or walking stick], and cast
it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.
10And Moses and Aaron went
in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down
his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent.
11Then Pharaoh also called
the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in
like manner with their enchantments.
12For they cast down every
man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.
13And he hardened Pharaoh's
heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
14And the LORD said unto
Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.
15Get thee unto Pharaoh in
the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the
river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent
shalt thou take in thine hand.
16And thou shalt say unto
[Pharaoh], The LORD God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my
people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou
wouldest not hear.
17Thus saith the LORD, In
this thou shalt know that I am the LORD: behold, I will
smite with the rod
that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be
turned to blood.
18And the fish that is in
the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall loathe
to drink of the water of the river. . . .
20And Moses and Aaron did
so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that
were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants;
and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
21And the fish that was
in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the
water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
the magicians of
Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened,
neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.
23And Pharaoh turned and
went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.
24And all the Egyptians
digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the
water of the river.
25And seven days were
fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.
Exodus chapter 8
1And the LORD spake unto
Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people
go, that they may serve me.
2And if thou refuse to let
them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with
3And the river shall bring
forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into
thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed . . .
5And the LORD spake unto
Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams,
over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land
6And Aaron stretched out his
hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of
7And the magicians did so
with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.
8Then Pharaoh called for
Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs
from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do
sacrifice unto the LORD.
[entreat = ask for or
9And Moses said unto
Pharaoh, Glory over me: when shall I entreat for thee, and for thy servants, and
for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may
remain in the river only?
[Moses raises the
challenge by letting Pharaoh set the time for the miracle to occur]
10And [Pharaoh] said,
Tomorrow. And [Moses] said, Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know
that there is none like unto the LORD our God.
11And the frogs shall depart
from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people; they
shall remain in the river only.
12And Moses and Aaron went
out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he
had brought against Pharaoh.
13And the LORD did according
to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages,
and out of the fields.
14And they gathered them
together upon heaps: and the land stank.
15But when Pharaoh saw that
there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the
LORD had said.
16And the LORD said unto
Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that
it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
17And they did so; for Aaron
stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it
became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice
throughout all the land of Egypt.
18And the magicians did so
with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were
lice upon man, and upon beast.
the magicians said
unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and
he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
20And the LORD said unto
Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh
forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go,
that they may serve me.
21Else, if thou wilt not let
my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy
servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the
Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they
22And I will sever
[treat separately] in that day the land of Goshen, in which my
people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest
know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.
I will put a
division between my people and thy people: tomorrow shall this sign be.
24And the LORD did so; and
there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his
servants' houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by
reason of the swarm of flies.
25And Pharaoh called for
Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land.
26And Moses said, It is not
meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the
LORD our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before
their eyes, and will they not stone us?
27We will go three days'
journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he shall
28And Pharaoh said, I will
let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only
ye shall not go very far away: entreat for me.
29And Moses said, Behold, I
go out from thee, and I will entreat the LORD that the swarms of flies may
depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, to morrow: but let
not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice
to the LORD.
30And Moses went out from
Pharaoh, and entreated [asked] the LORD.
31And the LORD did according
to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his
servants, and from his people; there remained not one.
32And Pharaoh hardened his
heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.
Exodus chapter 9
1Then the LORD said unto
Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, . . .
3Behold, the hand of the
LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses
[donkeys], upon the camels, upon the oxen,
and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.
[murrain = plague of dead cattle, sheep]
4And the LORD shall sever
[distinguish] between the cattle of Israel
and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the
children's of Israel.
5And the LORD appointed a
set time, saying, Tomorrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.
6And the LORD did that thing
on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the
children of Israel died not one.
7And Pharaoh sent, and,
behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of
Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.
8And the LORD said unto
Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let
Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
9And it shall become small
dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains
[sores] upon man, and upon beast,
throughout all the land of Egypt.
10And they took ashes of the
furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and
it became a boil breaking forth with blains
[sores] upon man, and upon beast.
11And the magicians could
not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the
magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.
12And the LORD hardened the
heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them . . . .
23And Moses stretched forth
his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran
along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
24So there was
fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in
all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
25And the hail smote
throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast;
and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
26Only in the land of
Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.
dominant culture untouched by suffering]
27And Pharaoh sent, and
called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the
LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.
28Entreat the LORD (for it
is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you
go, and ye shall stay no longer.
29And Moses said unto him,
As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the
LORD; and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that
thou mayest know how that the earth is the LORD's.
30But as for thee and thy
servants, I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God. . . .
33And Moses went out of the
city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders
and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.
34And when Pharaoh saw that
the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and
hardened his heart, he and his servants.
35And the heart of Pharaoh
was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had
spoken by Moses.
Exodus chapter 10
1And the LORD said unto
Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his
servants, that I might show these my signs before him:
2And that thou mayest tell
in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in
Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am
3And Moses and Aaron came in
unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How
long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they
may serve me.
4Else, if thou refuse to let
my people go, behold, tomorrow will I bring the
locusts into thy coast:
5And they shall cover the
face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat
the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail,
and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field:
6And they shall fill thy
houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians;
which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day
that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out
7And Pharaoh's servants said
unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they
may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?
8And Moses and Aaron were
brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God:
but who are they that shall go?
9And Moses said, We will
go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with
our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the
[Example of “national migration,” as
entire community relocates, not just individuals or families]
10And he said unto them, Let
the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it;
for evil is before you.
11Not so: go now ye that are
men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from
12And the LORD said unto
Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they
may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all
that the hail hath left.
13And Moses stretched forth
his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land
all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought
14And the locust went up
over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous
were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them
shall be such.
15For they covered the face
of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb
of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there
remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through
all the land of Egypt.
16Then Pharaoh called for
Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God,
and against you.
17Now therefore forgive, I
pray thee, my sin only this once, and entreat the LORD your God, that he may
take away from me this death only.
18And he went out from
Pharaoh, and entreated the LORD.
19And the LORD turned a
mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red
sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.
20But the LORD hardened
Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
21And the LORD said unto
Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be
the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
22And Moses stretched forth
his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt
23They saw not one another,
neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel
had light in their dwellings.
24And Pharaoh called unto
Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be
stayed: let your little ones also go with you.
25And Moses said, Thou must
give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD
26Our cattle also shall go
with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to
serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until
we come thither.
27But the LORD hardened
Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.
28And Pharaoh said unto him,
Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day
thou seest my face thou shalt die.
29And Moses said, Thou hast
spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.
Exodus chapter 11
1And the LORD said unto
Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt;
afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely
thrust you out hence altogether.
2Speak now in the ears of
the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbor, and every woman of her
neighbor, jewels of silver and jewels of gold.
3And the LORD gave the
people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very
great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight
of the people.
4And Moses said, Thus saith
the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:
all the firstborn in
the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon
his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill;
and all the firstborn of beasts.
6And there shall be a great
cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall
be like it any more.
7But against any of the
children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that
ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and
8And all these thy servants
shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out,
and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went
out from Pharaoh in a great anger.
9And the LORD said unto
Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in
the land of Egypt.
10And Moses and Aaron did
all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that
he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.
Exodus chapter 12 [The Passover]
1And the LORD spake unto
Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying,
2This month shall be unto
you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
3Speak ye unto all the
congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take
to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an
house . . . .
6And ye shall keep it up
until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the
congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
7And they shall take of the
blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the
houses, wherein they shall eat it.
8And they shall eat the
flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter
herbs they shall eat it.
9Eat not of it raw, nor
sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with
the purtenance thereof.
[purtenance = animal’s
10And ye shall let nothing
of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning
ye shall burn with fire.
11And thus shall ye eat it;
with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand;
and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover.
12For I will pass through
the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of
Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute
judgment: I am the LORD.
13And the blood shall be
to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I
will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you,
when I smite the land of Egypt.
14And this day shall be
unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout
your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
[example of how the Jews write themselves into
the future, creating traditions that survive change]
. . . 17And ye shall
observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought
your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in
your generations by an ordinance for ever. . . .
21Then Moses called for all
the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according
to your families, and kill the passover. . . .
22And ye shall take a bunch
of hyssop [Mediterranean herb], and dip it
in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel
[top of door frame] and the two side posts
[of the door frame] with the blood that is
in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the
23For the LORD will pass
through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and
on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the
destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
24And ye shall observe
this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
25And it shall come to pass,
when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath
promised, that ye shall keep this service.
26And it shall come to
pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?
[this service = the Passover feast or Seder]
27That ye shall say, It
is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the
children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our
houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.
28And the children of Israel
went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
29And it came to pass, that
at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the
firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive
that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
30And Pharaoh rose up in the
night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and
there was a great
cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
31And he called for Moses
and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people,
both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
32Also take your flocks and
your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
33And the Egyptians were
urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for
they said, We be all dead men.
34And the people took their
dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their
clothes upon their shoulders.
35And the children of Israel
did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of
silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
36And the LORD gave the
people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such
things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
37And the children of
Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot
that were men, beside children.
38And a mixed multitude
went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
[image of national migration]
unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was
not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry,
neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
40Now the sojourning of the
children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
41And it came to pass
the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to
pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
[in keeping with a national migration, the entire
people and their property traveled at once]
42It is a night to be much
observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is
that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their
generations. . . . [“observed” = Passover Seder]
50Thus did all the children
of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
51And it came to pass the
selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of
Egypt by their armies.
Exodus chapter 13
1And the LORD spake unto
2Sanctify unto me all the
firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man
and of beast: it is mine.
3And Moses said unto the
people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of
bondage . . . .
5And it shall be when the
LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the
Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he swore unto thy fathers to
give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this
service in this month. . . .
11And it shall be when the
LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and
to thy fathers, and shall give it thee,
12That thou shalt set apart
unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix [womb],
and every firstling [firstborn] that
cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's. . . .
17And it came to pass, when
Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land
of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the
people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
God led the people
about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of
Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
19And Moses took the
bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel,
saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence
20And they took their
journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
21And the LORD went
before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in
a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
22He took not away the
pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the
Exodus chapter 14
1And the LORD spake unto
Moses, saying, . . .
4And I will harden Pharaoh's
heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and
upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did
5And it was told the king of
Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was
turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have
let Israel go from serving us?
6And he made ready his
chariot, and took his people with him:
7And he took six hundred
chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of
8And the LORD hardened the
heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and
the children of Israel went out with an high hand.
pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen,
and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth,
10And when Pharaoh drew
nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians
marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried
out unto the LORD.
11And they said unto Moses,
Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the
wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of
12Is not this the word that
we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the
Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we
should die in the wilderness.
13And Moses said unto the
people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he
will show to you today . . . .
14The LORD shall fight for
you, and ye shall hold your peace.
15And the LORD said unto
Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that
they go forward:
16But lift thou up thy
rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of
Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
17And I, behold, I will
harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get
me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his
18And the Egyptians shall
know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honor upon Pharaoh, upon his
chariots, and upon his horsemen.
19And the angel of God,
which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the
pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
20And it came between the
camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to
them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the
other all the night.
Moses stretched out
his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong
east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and
the waters were
22And the children of Israel
went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall
unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
23And the Egyptians pursued,
and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his
chariots, and his horsemen.
24And it came to pass, that
in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the
pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
25And took off their chariot
wheels, that they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee
from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
26And the LORD said unto
Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon
the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27And Moses stretched
forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the
morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the
Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28And the waters
returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of
Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of
29But the children of
Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall
unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
30Thus the LORD saved Israel
that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead
upon the sea shore.
31And Israel saw that great
work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and
believed the LORD, and his servant Moses.
Exodus chapter 15
1Then sang Moses and the
children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto
the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously . . . .
13Thou in thy mercy hast led
forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength
unto thy holy habitation.
14The people shall hear, and
be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestine.
15Then the dukes of Edom
shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them;
all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.
16Fear and dread shall fall
upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till
thy people pass over, O LORD, till the people pass over, which thou hast
17Thou shalt bring them
[the Jewish people] in, and plant them in
the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast
made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O LORD, which thy hands have
18The LORD shall reign for
ever and ever.
19For the horse of Pharaoh
went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD
brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went
on dry land in the midst of the sea.
prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women
went out after her with timbrels and with dances. . . .
[Miriam recounts Jehovah’s triumph over Pharaoh]
27And they came to Elim,
where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they
encamped there by the waters.
Exodus chapter 16, verses 1-4
1And they took their journey
from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the
wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the
second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the
3And the children of Israel
said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land
of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full;
for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly
4Then said the LORD unto
Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people
shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether
they will walk in my law, or no. . . .
Exodus 20 [The Ten Commandments]
1And God spake all these
2I am the LORD thy God,
which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3Thou shalt have no other
gods before me.
4Thou shalt not make unto
thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above,
or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
[Jewish prohibition on idols or images
anticipates the “plain style” of the USA dominant culture]
5Thou shalt not bow down
thyself to them [idols or images], nor
serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of
the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that
6And shewing mercy unto
thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
7Thou shalt not take the
name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that
taketh his name in vain.
8Remember the sabbath day,
to keep it holy.
9Six days shalt thou labour,
and do all thy work:
10But the seventh day is the
sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy
son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor
thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11For in six days the LORD
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh
day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12Honor thy father and
thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God
giveth thee. [honoring father and mother focuses
on the nuclear family of a migratory culture]
13Thou shalt not kill.
14Thou shalt not commit
15Thou shalt not steal.
16Thou shalt not bear false
witness against thy neighbor.
17Thou shalt not covet thy
neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant,
nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass
[donkey], nor any thing that is thy neighbor's.
18And all the people saw the
thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain
smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.
19And they said unto Moses,
Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we
20And Moses said unto the
people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before
your faces, that ye sin not.
21And the people stood afar
off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.
22And the LORD said unto
Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that
have talked with you from heaven.
23Ye shall not make with
me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.
[The Jews’ religion operates by words, not by
material objects, increasing their mobility]
24An altar of earth thou
shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy
peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name
I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.
25And if thou wilt make me
an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up
thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.
26Neither shalt thou go up
by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.
Exodus 31, verse 12 through chapter
12And the LORD spake unto
13Speak thou also unto the
children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign
between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the
LORD that doth sanctify you.
14Ye shall keep the sabbath
therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defiles it shall surely be
put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off
from among his people.
15Six days may work be done;
but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any
work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.
[Sabbath observation helps establish the work
week and the Protestant work ethic]
16Wherefore the children of
Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their
generations, for a perpetual covenant.
17It is a sign between me
and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and
earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.
18And he gave unto Moses,
when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of
testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.
1And when the people saw
that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves
together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before
us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt,
we [know] not what is become of him.
2And Aaron said unto them,
Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your
sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me.
3And all the people brake
off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto
4And he received them at
their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had
made it a
molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee
up out of the land of Egypt.
5And when Aaron saw it, he
built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a
feast to the LORD.
6And they rose up early on
the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and
people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.
[contrast with sobriety and restraint of the work
7And the LORD said unto
Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou broughtest out of the land
of Egypt, have corrupted themselves:
8They have turned aside
quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten
calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be
thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
9And the LORD said unto
Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiff-necked people:
10Now therefore let me
alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and
I will make of thee a great nation.
11And Moses besought the
LORD his God, and said, LORD, why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people,
which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power, and
with a mighty hand?
12Wherefore should the
Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief did he bring them out, to slay them in
the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from thy
fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people.
Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and
saidst unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this
land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it
14And the LORD repented
of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.
15And Moses turned, and went
down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the
tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were
the tables were the
work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.
17And when Joshua heard the
noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war
in the camp.
18And he said, It is not the
voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry
for being overcome: but the noise of them that sing do I hear.
19And it came to pass, as
soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and
Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake
them beneath the mount.
20And he took the calf which
they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strew it
upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.
21And Moses said unto Aaron,
What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?
22And Aaron said, Let not
the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that they are set on
23For they said unto me,
Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that
brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we [know] not what is become of him.
24And I said unto them,
Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: then I cast
it into the fire, and there came out this calf.
25And when Moses saw that
the people were naked; (for Aaron had made them naked unto their shame among
26Then Moses stood in the
gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the LORD's side? let him come unto me. And
all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him.
27And he said unto them,
Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go
in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and
slay every man his
brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor.
28And the children of
Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day
about three thousand men.
29For Moses had said,
Consecrate yourselves today to the LORD, even every man upon his son, and upon
his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.
30And it came to pass on the
morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I
will go up unto the LORD; peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sin.
31And Moses returned unto
the LORD, and said, Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them
gods of gold.
32Yet now, if thou wilt
forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of
thy book which
thou hast written.
33And the LORD said unto
Moses, Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book.
[If literacy is an aspect of dominant culture,
even God writes!]
34Therefore now go, lead the
people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee: behold, mine Angel shall
go before thee: nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon
35And the LORD plagued the
people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made.
[end of selections from
proceed to selections
from Leviticus & Numbers]