Mainline / Intellectual / Social Justice / Worldly line of development:
If American government and business have a religious orientation, it would be in these terms. Except in small ways, though, these aren't organized religions but only attitudes.
Parallel alliance: Mainline Religions (old national churches with longstanding theological traditions of intellectual rigor + social justice:
Lutheran for Germans
Presbyterian for Scots
Congregational & Episcopal [+ Quakers] for English
+- Catholic for French & Italians)
Other terms for these divisions of churches / denominations:
Demographic differences: Mainline religions above have low birthrates and aging congregations as children drift away from religion or toward Evangelical religions.
Evangelical / Populist / Individual Salvation / Fundamentalist line of development:
series of Great Awakenings or revivals from 1700s to 20c, even now
less emphasis on theological rigor and social justice
more emphasis on being born again, individual salvation, mystical-emotional "personal relationship"
Methodists & Baptists (esp. 1800s); also Mormons, plus many "dissenting" groups in Mainline Religions
The Missouri Synod Lutheran Church is an aging Evangelical church that remains poised between a hot and cold church--one that insists on its exclusive hold on truth or one that recognizes the truth of other religious traditions.
also Seventh-Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, Assemblies of God, Pentecostals, Emerging Church Movement
(most of these groups follow Protestant tradition of forsaking tradition in order to return to apostolic model of early church)
Individual churches or denominations may be ethnically exclusive (i.e., all-white, all-black), but they are less tied
Class distinctions? ("Class" not only as economic but education, family & social stability)
Contemporary issues of family values, personal identity:
In the 1800s some of these Evangelical movements became involved in social justice movements like Abolition, but just as many supported slavery, so as usual religious orientations depended much on material conditions.